6 most powerful supercomputers in the world

 Supercomputers operate on the same principles as regular computers, but their performance is much higher and they look like the classic giant computers of old.

Unlike desktop or laptop computers, supercomputers process huge data sets and perform calculations at extremely high speeds.

According to IBM, they are the fastest computers in the world and require huge infrastructure to operate them, including extremely modern cooling systems.

In terms of design, they also have more components than regular computers. Your laptop may have 1 central processing unit (CPU) and one graphics processing unit (GPU), but a supercomputer can have thousands of CPUs and GPUs, and each one is more powerful than many CPUs. and the GPU of a regular computer.

In terms of performance, a normal computer has a power of several hundred gigaFLOPs/second (each FLOP is a mathematical calculation), equivalent to 1 trillion. Meanwhile, the most powerful supercomputer in the world today has exceeded the capacity of 1 exaFLOP, equivalent to 1 quadrillion. They are called exa-level supercomputers.

Because they are capable of processing extremely large amounts of data and calculating incredibly fast, scientists often use supercomputers to solve problems of invention and discovery of drugs and materials.

They also have predictive capabilities, such as forecasting the weather and even learning how to play chess, like IBM's 1997 classic Deep Blue supercomputer.

Below are the 7 most powerful supercomputers today.

1. Frontier

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Frontier supercomputer (Photo: Carlos Jones/ US Department of Energy).

Location: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, USA

Performance: 1.2 exaFLOPS

Announcement of operations: August 2022

Frontier is the most powerful supercomputer in the world. Scientists initially planned to use it for cancer research, drug discovery, nuclear synthesis, new materials, super-efficient engine design and modeling of stellar explosions. In the future, scientists will use Frontier to design transportation technology and medical technology.

2. Aurora

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Aurora supercomputer (Photo: Argonne National Laboratory).




Location: Argonne National Laboratory, Illinois, USA

Performance: 0.59 exaFLOPS

Announcement of operations: June 2023

This is one of the youngest supercomputers and may one day become the most powerful supercomputer. It is the second exa-level supercomputer and is capable of reaching 2 exaFLOPS, which is twice as much as the Frontier. Synthesizing large-scale nuclear reactions is the main goal scientists are expected to focus on using Aurora.

3. Eagle

Location: Microsoft Azure — The Cloud / Distributed

Performance: 0.56 exaFLOPS

Announcement of operations: August 2023

Microsoft's Eagle supercomputer is not located in a laboratory, but it is stored in the cloud and anyone can access it through the Microsoft Azure cloud platform.

It is a network of distributed systems with enough power to become the third fastest supercomputer in the world. In theory, anyone who pays can access and use it.

4. Fugaku

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Fugaku supercomputer. (Photo: CC BY 4.0)




Location: Riken Computer Science Center, Kobe, Japan

Performance: 0.44 exaFLOPS

Announcement of operations: June 2020

Fugaku was the most powerful supercomputer in the world from June 2020 to June 2022. Scientists have used it to tackle a number of important studies over the years.

During the Covid-19 pandemic, it was used to confirm that masks made of non-woven fabric could block airborne droplets better than regular fabric masks. Currently Fugaku trains large Japanese AI language models following the ChatGPT framework.

5. Lumi

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Lumi supercomputer (Photo: Fade Creative).

Location: CSC Data Center, Kajaani, Finland

Performance: 0.38 exaFLOPS

Announcement of operations: June 2021

Lumi is the most powerful supercomputer in Europe and the 5th fastest in the world. It uses 100% hydroelectric power and its excess heat is used to heat surrounding buildings.

Lumi started trial runs in June 2021 and will operate at full capacity from February 2023. It is used jointly by researchers across Europe for collaborative research and is optimized for AI-based work. It is also a "partner" of two quantum computers QAL 9000 and Helmi in Finland. This quantum-classical computing collaboration helps scientists have the best quantum computers combined with supercomputers today.

6. Leonardo

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Leonardo supercomputer (Photo: Cineca).

Location: CINECA Data Center, Bologna, Italy

Performance: 0.23 exaFLOPS

Announcement of operations: November 2022

Leonardo consists of 3 modules combined together and becomes Europe's second fastest machine.

Data center

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